This workbook shows:
There are two main academic papers presenting how Eora was constructed. The Supplementary Information for the "Mapping the Structure" paper contains a considerable amount of detail, including which data source(s) were used for building which IO tables.
Lenzen M, Kanemoto K; Moran D, and Geschke A (2012) Mapping the structure of the world economy. Environmental Science & Technology 46(15) pp 8374–8381. DOI: 10.1021/es300171x. Supplementary Information
Lenzen, M., Moran, D., Kanemoto, K., Geschke, A. (2013) Building Eora: A Global Multi-regional Input-Output Database at High Country and Sector Resolution. Economic Systems Research, 25:1, 20-49, DOI:10.1080/09535314.2013.769938
We also provide a document explaining the constrained optimization approach used to merge and reconcile multiple, often conflicting, data sources into a single balanced MRIO: EoraConfidence.pdf
On the horizon for development of future MRIO database is the Virtual Industrial Ecology Laboratory concept. This is a web-based platform where IO researchers from around the world can contribute and link IO data toward the construction of the next generation of global MRIO databases.
Lenzen, M., A. Geschke, M. Rahman, Y. Xiao, E. Dietzenbacher, S. Inomata, K. Kanemoto, B. Los, D. Moran, R. Reyes, H. Schulte in den Bäumen, A. Tukker, T. Walmsley, T. Wiedmann, R. Wood, N. Yamano. The Global MRIO Lab - Charting the world economy. Economic Systems Research 10.1080/09535314.2017.1301887
Lenzen, M., Geschke, A., Wiedmann, T., Lane, J., Anderson, N., Baynes, T., Boland, J., Daniels, P., Dey, C., Fry, J., Hadjikakou, M., Kenway, S., Malik, A., D. Moran, D., Murray, J., Nettleton, S., Poruschi, L., Reynolds, C., Rowley, H., Ugon, J., Webb, D. and West, J., (2014) Compiling and using input-output frameworks through collaborative virtual laboratories. Science of the Total Environment. 485–486, pp241-251. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.062
Several MRIO models exist. There is variation in the CBA results across models, but this variation is generally considered acceptable. For more on intercomparison see:
D. Moran, Wood, R. (2014) Convergence between the Eora, WIOD, EXIOBASE, and OpenEU's consumption-based carbon accounts. Economic Systems Research. DOI:10.1080/09535314.2014.935298
Or visit our intercomparison results page
Another intercomparison website is the Environmental Footprints Explorer .
Below is a list of resources (papers, reports, and video) that can help in learning basic IO analysis.
The MRIO lecture video series by Prof. Lenzen is highly recommended if you are new to IO!
The main textbook on IO is Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions [amazon.com] by Miller and Blair
Most of the main papers presenting Eora and Eora-based results are provided above and in the individual applications sections (e.g. for carbon, water, and biodiversity footprints). We have also contributed to a number of additional papers related to the construction or use of MRIOs:
R. Wood, Moran, D., Stadler, K., Ivanova, D., Steen-Olsen, K., Tisserant, A., Hertwich, (2017) E. Prioritizing Consumption-Based Carbon Policy Based on the Evaluation of Mitigation Potential Using Input-Output Methods. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 10.1111/jiec.12702
D. Moran, Wood, R., Rodrigues, J. F. D. (2017) A Note on the Magnitude of the Feedback Effect in Multi-Region Input-Output Tables. Journal of Industrial Ecology 10.1111/jiec.12658
Geschke, A., Wood, R., Kanemoto, K., Lenzen, M., D. Moran. (2014) Investigating Alternative Approaches to Harmonise Multi-Regional Input-Output Data Economic Systems Research. 26(3). pp354-385. doi: 10.1080/09535314.2014.937069
Lenzen, M., D. Moran, A. Geschke, K. Kanemoto (2014) A non-sign-preserving RAS variant. Economic Systems Research, 26 (2), pp197-208. doi: 10.1080/09535314.2014.897933
Lan, J, Lenzen, M, Dietzenbacher, E, D. Moran, Kanemoto, K, Murray, J, Geschke, A. (2012). Structural change and the environment: A case study of china's production recipe and carbon dioxide emissions. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16(4), 623-635. doi:10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00518.x
Lenzen, M, M. Moura, A. Geschke, K. Kanemoto, D. Moran (2013) A cycling method for constructing input-output table time series from incomplete data. Economic Systems Research, 25 (1), 10.1080/09535314.2012.724013