Eora Documentation

MRIO structure

This workbook shows:

How Eora is Built

There are two main academic papers presenting how Eora was constructed. The Supplementary Information for the "Mapping the Structure" paper contains a considerable amount of detail, including which data source(s) were used for building which IO tables.

Lenzen M, Kanemoto K; Moran D, and Geschke A (2012) Mapping the structure of the world economy. Environmental Science & Technology 46(15) pp 8374–8381. DOI: 10.1021/es300171x. Supplementary Information

Lenzen, M., Moran, D., Kanemoto, K., Geschke, A. (2013) Building Eora: A Global Multi-regional Input-Output Database at High Country and Sector Resolution. Economic Systems Research, 25:1, 20-49, DOI:10.1080/09535314.2013.769938

We also provide a document explaining the constrained optimization approach used to merge and reconcile multiple, often conflicting, data sources into a single balanced MRIO: EoraConfidence.pdf


On the horizon for development of future MRIO database is the Virtual Industrial Ecology Laboratory concept. This is a web-based platform where IO researchers from around the world can contribute and link IO data toward the construction of the next generation of global MRIO databases.

Lenzen, M., A. Geschke, M. Rahman, Y. Xiao, E. Dietzenbacher, S. Inomata, K. Kanemoto, B. Los, D. Moran, R. Reyes, H. Schulte in den Bäumen, A. Tukker, T. Walmsley, T. Wiedmann, R. Wood, N. Yamano. The Global MRIO Lab - Charting the world economy. Economic Systems Research 10.1080/09535314.2017.1301887

Lenzen, M., Geschke, A., Wiedmann, T., Lane, J., Anderson, N., Baynes, T., Boland, J., Daniels, P., Dey, C., Fry, J., Hadjikakou, M., Kenway, S., Malik, A., D. Moran, D., Murray, J., Nettleton, S., Poruschi, L., Reynolds, C., Rowley, H., Ugon, J., Webb, D. and West, J., (2014) Compiling and using input-output frameworks through collaborative virtual laboratories. Science of the Total Environment. 485–486, pp241-251. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.062

MRIO model intercomparison

Several MRIO models exist. There is variation in the CBA results across models, but this variation is generally considered acceptable. For more on intercomparison see:

D. Moran, Wood, R. (2014) Convergence between the Eora, WIOD, EXIOBASE, and OpenEU's consumption-based carbon accounts. Economic Systems Research. DOI:10.1080/09535314.2014.935298

Or visit our intercomparison results page

Another intercomparison website is the Environmental Footprints Explorer .

Learning MRIO

Below is a list of resources (papers, reports, and video) that can help in learning basic IO analysis.

The MRIO lecture video series by Prof. Lenzen is highly recommended if you are new to IO!

The main textbook on IO is Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions [amazon.com] by Miller and Blair

Additional papers

Most of the main papers presenting Eora and Eora-based results are provided above and in the individual applications sections (e.g. for carbon, water, and biodiversity footprints). We have also contributed to a number of additional papers related to the construction or use of MRIOs: