The Eora Global Supply Chain Database

The Eora global supply chain database consists of a multi-region input-output table (MRIO) model that provides a time series of high-resolution IO tables with matching environmental and social satellite accounts for 190 countries. The Eora MRIO features:

  • a balanced global MRIO table documenting the inter-sectoral transfers amongst 15,909 sectors across 190 countries
  • a complete timeseries for 1990-2022
  • 2720 line item environmental indicators covering GHG emissions, labour inputs, air pollution, energy use, water requirements, land occupation, N and P emissions, primary inputs to agriculture (including 172 crops) from FAOSTAT, and Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity Full list
  • a high-resolution version (full Eora) preserving national IO table detail, and a simplified verison (Eora26) with 26-sector harmonized classification
  • raw data drawn from a wide range of national and international data sources
  • reliability statistics for all results

Getting Data

Eora provides a free license for academic use at degree-granting academic institutions (see Licensing page for details). For information on getting a license to access the database please see the licensing page

Eora is available in several formats:

Additionally, some applications and analyses built uing Eora (including the carbon footprint of nations and the UNCTAD/Eora Global Value Chain database) are available under the Applications menu.

Who uses Eora?

Eora has been used at Deloitte, KPMG, Ernst & Young, McKinsey Global Institute,, the European Commission, the IMF, the World Bank, and the UN. The database has been downloaded at over 800 universities. The main papers have received >1200 citations, and studies using Eora have appeared in Nature, Nature Climate Change, and PNAS, and been covered in Science, and Eora-based research has featured in the New York Times, Scientific American, TIME, the Washington Post, BBC, Le Monde, FAZ, and National Geographic.

Some reports using Eora include the following:

Global Value Chains and Development World World Investment Report 2013 African Economic Outlook 2014 Deloitte report UNEP report Balancing the G20's Global Impact


The documentation page contains a number of resources for learning about Eora and about MRIO analysis in general. We also maintain a list of Frequently Asked Questions. And of course, with further questions feel free to contact us at