Carbon Footprint of Nations

Consumption-based accounting (CBA) of emissions (also called carbon footprints) accounts for emissions associated with imported and exported goods. CBA reports the total emissions associated with final demand in each country.

Emissions physically occurring in a country are its territorial emissions. This is sometimes called production-based accounting (PBA). This is the standard reporting of GHG emissions as reported by CDIAC, IEA, the JRC EDGAR database, UNFCCC, and others.

CBA can be calculated using a global multi-region input-output (MRIO) model which traces global supply chains. This dataset uses the Eora MRIO model to calculate the CBA emissions for each country.

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production are reattributed to the countries where final demand induced the production associated with those emissions. Emissions from aviation and marine bunker fuels are not included in the CBA inventory, as no method has yet been developed to allocate emissions from bunker fuels to countries other than where the fuel is bunkered.

In this dataset, territorial emssions are taking from the EU JRC EDGAR database. Population and GDP data are from the World Bank. CBA results are from the Eora MRIO model ( v199.82, years 1970-2017, by Daniel Moran, Keiichiro Kanemoto, and Arne Geschke.

Last updated: October 14 2019


While the above file shows the summary of a country's total footrint, the following files detail the countries (and sectors) in which that footprint originates. These files report flows of embodied CO2 from each origin/emitter country to each destination/consumer country. The first two files are are text-delimited files that can be opened as pivot tables in Excel. (Note that flows from country X to country X are domestic flows, i.e. emissions occuring in X that are allocated to final consumers in X.) The third and fourth files show the country and sector of origin of footprints in Full and Eora26 detail for 2017. Units are Gg CO2 (1 Gg = 1Kt)

Spatially explicit carbon footprints

We have linked the Eora global supply chain database to the EDGAR spatially explicit GHG emissions dataset, allowing us to better resolve within each origin country where GHG emissions are occuring upstream, for a given demand bundle.

Kanemoto, K., D. Moran, Hertwitch, E. (2016) Mapping the Carbon Footprint of Nations. Environmental Science and Technology 10.1021/acs.est.6b03227

This paper was highlighted as an Editor’s Choice in Science

MRIO model intercomparison

Several MRIO models exist. There is variation in the CBA results across models, but this variation is generally considered acceptable. For more on intercomparison see:

D. Moran, Wood, R. (2014) Convergence between the Eora, WIOD, EXIOBASE, and OpenEU's consumption-based carbon accounts. Economic Systems Research. DOI:10.1080/09535314.2014.935298

Or visit our intercomparison results page

Another intercomparison website is the Environmental Footprints Explorer .

Selected carbon footprint papers